Since 1997, many scales have been introduced to measure Brand personality. Aaker first developed one of them in 1997, which is based on five dimensions of brand personality: Sincerity, Excitement, Competence, Sophistication and Ruggedness. Although, the scale has been widely used by researchers and provides insight into what variables make brand personality but there’s very less evidence found on centrality of these five dimensions which needs more examination in order to understand to what extent these dimensions influence consumer’s preference for brand.
Aaker’s research was mainly conducted by using subjects from US population (what motivates them to buy a brand, their culture values individualistic vs. Collectivist) will vary for subjects from another country and thus makes the validity of scale questionable across various cultures. For example: In some countries with collectivist culture people will might prefer to buy a product which will more likely to express their similarity or belongingness towards a group like drinking a coffee which everyone in group prefers to drink whereas in individualistic cultures people will more value uniqueness, distinctiveness and thus prefer brands which makes them different from others for example: having a different car or mobile from rest of group (Markus and Kitayama 1991).
Although, theory does explain about brand personality construct but failed to analyse how brand personality information is processed or cognitive process it goes through which require psychological approach.
In sum up, framework provided by Aaker is still very useful to understand brand personality constructs but demands more research in cultural context to determine the extent to which these dimensions are stable across cultures.
Aaker, J (1997) ‘Dimensions of Brand Personality’. Journal of Marketing Research 34, 347-356
Written by Ajay